Africa

Tempio di Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahari


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The mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, also known as Djeser-Djeseru (“Saint of the Saints”), is a temple situated beneath the cliffs at Deir el-Bahari on the west bank of the Nile near the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. The mortuary temple is dedicated to the sun god Amon-Ra and is located next to the temple of Mentuhotep II, both of which served as inspiration and, later, as a source of building materials. It is considered one of the “incomparable monuments of ancient Egypt.” The temple was the place where occurred on November 17, 1997 massacre of 62 people, mostly tourists, at the hands of Islamic extremists.

The Registrar of Hatshepsut, royal architect and perhaps lover Senenmut probably designed and supervised the construction of the temple. Despite the close and oldest temple of Mentuhotep was used as a template, the two structures are different in many respects. In the temple of Hatshepsut, there was a long colonnaded terrace that diverges from the centralized structure of the temple of Mentuhotep, an anomaly that could have been caused by the off-center of the burial chamber. There are three levels of terraces for a total height of 35 meters. Each level consists of a double row of square columns, with the exception of the north-western angle of the central terrace, which uses columns to house the chapel protodoriche. These terraces are colletgate each other through long flights once surrounded by gardens with exotic plants, including trees of frankincense and myrrh. The layering of Hatshepsut’s temple corresponds to the classical Theban form, using pylons, courts, hypostyle , short solar, chapels and shrines.

The sculptures in bas-relief of the temple of Hatshepsut tell the story of the divine birth of a female pharaoh, the first of its kind. Text and images speak of an expedition to the land of Punt, an exotic area on the coast of the Red Sea. Although statues and ornaments were stolen or destroyed, we know that the structure once contained statues of Osiris, an avenue lined with sphinxes and many other sculptures of the queen in different poses: standing, sitting or kneeling. Many of these portraits were destroyed on the orders of her stepson Thutmose III after his death.

the temple of Hatshepsut is regarded as the main point of contact between Egyptian architecture and classical architecture. [6] An excellent example of funerary architecture of the New Kingdom, emphasizes the Pharaoh and includes shrines to the gods important to the afterlife. [7 ] all this marks a turning point in Egyptian architecture, which abandons the megalithic geometry of the Old Kingdom to move to a building that allows the active worship. The linearity of the axial Hatshepsut temple is found in other temples of the New Kingdom.
The architecture of the original temple has been considerably changed due to an erroneous reconstruction took place in the early twentieth century.

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